• Why are the tribals in India referred to as ‘the Scheduled Tribes’?Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of Indiafor their upliftment.

    12/22/2016 | Writing Structure |Qchat

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     The framer of constitution wanted assimilate tribes into constitutional framework without interfering into their customs and traditions. For this purpose they classified tribal communities under Article 366 and Article 342 of constitution, this classification is known as Schedule tribes.

    While ensuring their cultural integrity, the constitution for following provision for their upliftment-

    • Provision for reservation in general (article 14(4)) and in particular, in jobs and appointments in favour of tribal communities (article 16(4)) ensure their presence in the administration which work for their betterment.
    • Representation in Parliament and state legislatures (articles 330 and 332), it ensure that they have their say in polity making.
    • Learning from the colonial experience and protecting their source of livelihood constitution provide for restriction on the right of the ordinary citizen to move freely or settle in particular areas or acquire property in them (article19(5)).
    • Besides these, there are provisions in the 5th or 6th schedule of the Constitution (Articles 244 and 244(a) that empower the state to bring the area inhabited by the tribes under special treatment of administration for their specific requirements of development.
    • Directive Principle of the Constitution that requires that the educational and economic rights of tribes, is especially promoted (Article 46)

    To complement the constitutional provisions various has also been enacted. But their holistic upliftment can only be ensured through effective legal, administrative, infrastructure and financial support

  • “An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples

    12/22/2016 | Writing Structure |Qchat

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     Poverty is described as inability of a person to realize certain minimum basic level of consumption. According to AmartyaSen ‘’ Poverty is caused by deprivation which result from the lack rather than low income itself.’’

    The following are the various deprivation which if removed will itself eradicate poverty.-

    • Elementary education- It is regarded as greatest gift which can empower an individual. For example- If poor child is educated it will help him to secure job in a economy which require skilled workers. This will help his whole family to break the vicious cycle of poverty.
    • Health Care facilities-In India expenses on medical emergency can push many family back into poverty as we do not have Universal Health Insurance facility. If they are provided with adequate health care facility which can reduce out of pocket expenses it will reduce recurrence of poverty.
    • Water and Sanitation- A family which do not have access to quality water and sanitation facilities will be more prone to disease. If earning member is ill it way cause hunger and abject poverty in family.
    • Political power- If proper representation is not provided to poor it will deprive them of policy support like economic and social entitlements.

    So, it is more important to work on causes of poverty rather than its symptoms for curing this disease of poverty.

  • To what extent globalisation has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain.

    12/22/2016 | Writing Structure |Qchat

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     Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. This results into decrease in variation in cultural diversity and formation of a ‘Global village’ with identical features.

    Globalisation has varying degree of influence on cultural diversity in India as following-

    • Impact on language- In the process of providing a common language of communication medium of mass communication has undermined the local languages. The development of literature is also impacted by this.
    • Impact on regional art and handicrafts- In the globalized and mechanized economy no art has remain local. The countries like China is flooding Indian market with the products which were local to India like toys making. This has impacted diversity in Art and handicraft as now we find same kind of product allover India.
    •  Impact on Ethnicity- The globalization generalized the taste and preferences of people relating to food, Dance forms and Values. This undermines the peculiar features of various ethnicities like cuisines.
    • Impact on customs and Traditions- The western Idea of civilization has impacted prospective toward Indian tradition and customs which are looked down as regressive, therefore people are leaving their cultural identity which provided India its cultural diversity.

    Therefore thought the globalization is promoting universalism but this may lead to lose of cultural identity of the societies in India

  • Dark side of emotional intelligence

    12/1/2016 | Writing Structure |Qchat

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     Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize, understands, and manages emotions.
    Emotional intelligence has been touted by leaders, policymakers, and educators as the solution to a wide range of social problems. If we can teach our children to manage emotions, the argument goes, we’ll have less bullying and more cooperation. If we can cultivate emotional intelligence among leaders and doctors, we’ll have more caring workplaces and more compassionate healthcare. As a result, emotional intelligence is now taught widely in secondary schools, business schools, and medical schools.
    Emotional intelligence is important, but the unbridled enthusiasm has obscured a dark side.
    New evidence shows, When people hone their emotional skills, they become better at manipulating others.
    When you’re good at controlling your own emotions, you can disguise your true feelings. When you know what others are feeling, you can tug at their heartstrings and motivate them to act against their own best interests.
    Social scientists have begun to document this dark side of emotional intelligence.
    Leaders who master emotions can rob us of our capacities to reason. If their values are out of step with our own, the results can be devastating. New evidence suggests that when people have self-serving motives, emotional intelligence becomes a weapon for manipulating others.
    Emotional intelligence helps people disguise one set of emotions while expressing another for personal gain. Emotionally intelligent people “intentionally shape their emotions to fabricate favorable impressions of themselves,”

  • Geopolitical tussle in west asia and its spillover effects

    12/1/2016 | Writing Structure |Qchat

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     Major forces contributing and reshaping this conflict
    United States:
    US has been a dominating power in west Asia due to its economic and strategic interests. It wanted oil for its economy and promised security and stability in return to the regional monarchs and despots. US invasion of Iraq in 2003, caused the instability of the region. The invasion not only destroyed the Ba’athist state of Saddam Hussein, but also unsettled the fragile sections, ethnicities and religions within the Iraqi society.
    Libya, where US “led from behind” and toppled Muammar Qaddafi, is now ruled by two governments which are at war with several militias, including the Islamic State.
    But now US is rebalancing its strategy because of its failure in Iraq, Libya as well as its shale oil boom. Now instead of direct military interventions, US is fighting terror through targeted air strikes, focusing on diplomacy and nuclear non-proliferation, promoting state- and institution-building, balancing American ties between regional rivals, etc.
    Saudi Arabia
    Saudi Arabia, a long term ally of US is unhappy with current American administration and now wants to pursue its independent military ambitions. In pursuance of their new policy, Saudi Arabia enhanced its role in Syrian civil war. The Saudis stepped up military and economic aid to the rebels, who intensified the civil war and directly or indirectly helped the Islamic State and Jabhat al-Nusra, al-Qaeda’s Syrian affiliate. Also US- Iran nuclear deal is not welcomed by Saudi Arabia because of possible fear of more powerful Iran. Bombing of Yemen is another misadventure of Saudi military interventionism.
    Iran
    Syria is a potential outlet for Iran oil and gas resources into the Mediterranean and onto Europe. Iran has the world’s second-largest gas reserves, is the second-largest Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) producer and a capable military-industrial nation. As an aspiring regional power, it is a potential threat to the Western-allied Sunni Arabs and an obstacle to America’s Afghanistan strategy as well as its access to Central Asia’s and the Caspian basin’s energy wealth. Iran also sits on the mouth of a vital maritime chokepoint — the Strait of Hormuz — through which 35% of the world’s oil tanker traffic passes
    Khurd
    There is rise of Kurds as a counterbalance to the Islamic State on the ground. US decided not to send ground troops to Syria and Iraq, it wanted reliant allies on the ground to fight the jihadists . The Iraqi Kurdistan has historically been an American ally. On the Syrian side, the People’s Protection Units (YPG) militias of the semi-autonomous Syrian Kurdistan were effectively resisting the Islamic State. YPG is closely associated with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) on the Turkish side, which is described as a “terrorist” group by both Ankara and Washington. Still, the U.S. provided air cover to the YPG in the battles in Kobane and Tal Abyad where the Kurds defeated the Islamic State.
    Turkey:
    Turkey was upset with the support of Khurd by US. For decades, it tried to suppress the Kurdish rebellion and isolate the Kurdish national question. Often described as a people without a state, the Kurds are scattered across several countries such as Iraq, Syria and Turkey. If Kurds rise as a unified force from the war against Islamic State, that would set back Ankara’s interests. This explains why Turkey started bombing the PKK this year even as it claims to be a part of the U.S.-led anti-Islamic State coalition. The Turkish militarism is actually complicating the Syrian crisis.
    Russia
    Syria is an important ally of Russia. In 2015, Russia attacked in Syria both on Islamic state and Syrian rebel. One explanation of the timing is that the regime was under enormous strain from attacks by multiple enemies and Moscow stepped in to prevent an eventual collapse of the Syrian state. Russia finds an opportunity in the Syrian mess to rebuild Russia’s presence in West Asia. During the Cold War, Egypt and Syria were the two pillars of the Soviet Union’s West Asia policy. When Egypt under President Anwar Sadat shifted towards the American camp in the late 1970s, the Soviet influence in the region diminished. Now, a resurgent Russia is planning to reposition itself in the region through Syria and Iran. The vacuum created by the realignment of the U.S. strategy is providing Russia enough room for maneuvering.
    Israel - Palestine Conflict:
    There was no slow down in violence between both countries. Even , United Nations has warned that a deadly surge in violence between Israelis and Palestinians is leading them towards a "catastrophe".
    Arab Spring:
    Arab Spring protests started as a spontaneous social reaction to dictatorships, those were encroached upon by regional and global heavyweights and transformed into an “interest pusher”, a process which weakened the region’s social balancing further, and even cracked it in some societies. What followed was total disaster.
    All eyes are now on whether there would be a ceasefire between the Syrian regime and the rebels next year. If achieved, it would indeed be a breakthrough. But the larger questions on the Islamic State, the Kurdish problem, the Saudi-Iranian cold war, the Russian presence, Israel’s continuing occupation of Palestine and the possibility of instability spreading to other parts of the Arab world, particularly Lebanon and Jordan, will continue to roil 2016 and many more years unless and until the region makes a break with its own violent history.

  • Significance of MTCR and NSG for India

    12/1/2016 | Writing Structure |Qchat

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     What is the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)?
    Established in April 1987, it is a voluntary association of 35 countries including India. The group aims to slow the spread of missiles and other unmanned delivery technology that could be used for chemical, biological and nuclear attacks. The regime urges members, which include most of the world’s major missile manufacturers, to restrict exports of missiles and related technologies capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km, or delivering any type of weapon of mass destruction.

    Does joining the MTCR make getting missile technology easier?
    There are no special concessions for MTCR members. But India hopes its MTCR membership will be one more reason for the US to consider exporting Category 1 UAVs, Reaper and Global Hawk, which have been key to counter-terrorism efforts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. These drones have so far been sold to only one country, the UK, though unarmed versions have also been made available to Italy and South Korea. The US has been rethinking rules on exports, aware that competitors in Israel, Russia and China are working on similar products — and India wants to be at the head of the queue when the Reaper and the Global Hawk go on the market.

    Why does India want to be in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)?
    Following India’s 1974 nuclear tests, the US pushed for setting up a club of nuclear equipment and fissile material suppliers. The 48-nation group frames and implements agreed rules for exporting nuclear equipment, with a view to controlling the spread of nuclear weapons; members are admitted only by consensus. India has been trying, since 2008, to join the group, which would give it a place at the high table where the rules of nuclear commerce are decided — and, eventually, the ability to sell equipment. Many countries that initially opposed its entry, like Australia, have changed stance; Mexico and Switzerland are the latest to voice support. India’s effort has been to chip away at the resistance, leaving only one holdout — China. But until China accepts India’s entry, there is no hope of membership.