Yojana Gist: Issue: July,2016

 11/23/2016  1490

Yojana Gist:Issue

July, 2016

Water: A Precious Resource

Preface:

Every issue of Yojana deals with a single topic comprehensively sharing views from wide ranging scholars. And due increasing value of issue based questions this magazine has gained a lot of significance and via this gist we try to bring out to you the relevant topics covered in this issue of Yojana.
By providing this gist we do not wish to discourage you from reading the magazine itself but this is just a document to help you to understand the way in which the magazine is needed to be processed and addressed.
You can rely on the content but we wish that you go through the complete magazine and enhance the summary by adding to other essential points that you feel like.
All the Best and Pick up the magazine and start as it is the right time.

Water and constitution:

(Related Article- Do you Know, Page 19)

State List: State government has the power to make laws for the water resources of that state. Under Entry 17 of the state list, the legislative power of a state has to be exercised without adversely affecting the interests of other states and avoiding any dispute.

Union List: Regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest.

Article 262(1): Parliament may, by law, provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any Inter-State river or river valley.

Inter-state water tribunal Act, 1956:
• Act extends to whole of India.
• A State Government which has a water dispute with another State Government may request the Central Government to refer the dispute to a tribunal for adjudication.
• If the Central Government thinks that the dispute cannot be settled by negotiation, it refers the dispute to a Tribunal.
• The Tribunal then investigates the matter and gives its decision, which is considered final and binding on the parties.
• Even the Supreme Court and other courts do not interfere with the decision.

Panchayat: Fundamental right of the village Panchayat to form a water committee to ensure proper water management, equal distribution, tax collection and protection of water resources.

Economic Dimension:

(Related Article-Role of water resources management in economic development, Page No.-7 by Sacchidananda Mukherjee)

High average annual economic growth of 7.28% since 2002-03
• The growth is supported by Consumption of fixed and natural capital
• Production and consumption generate pollution and wastes. If Pollution load > Assimilation Capacity ?Environmental Degradation.
• Contribution of natural resources to the GDP not accounted.
• Can limit the potential to achieve high economic growth due to constraints on its availability

Impact of pollution and costs Borne by society:
• Public Health costs -Mortality, Morbidity.
• Loss of livelihoods -Hampers primary activities

Solution: 
• Improve water condition.
• Need to match pollution abatement with equivalent level of production and consumption activities.
• Investment in water infrastructure institutions & water storages facilities
• Initiating a positive dialogue amongst the citizens and the government
• Crafting policy reforms to achieve human development and sustain economic growth

NOTE: It has been seen that in hot and arid tropical countries the investment in water storages had helped support economic growth. Moreover it seems to reduce malnutrition and Child mortality.

WATER CRISIS:

(Related Articles-Role of water resources management in economic development, Page No.-7 by Sacchidananda Mukherjee & Water Scarcity and public investment in irrigation, page no.- 30 by Seema Bathla)

Third risk in list of top ten global risks with threat to world peace, justice and security. (List by WEF- Global Risk Report)
• One Third of India’s districts affected by severe droughts.
• In 2016 water problem was noticed in about 10 states worst sufferers being Maharashtra, Karnataka, UP, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana.
• In March 2016, only 24% water left in 91 key reservoirs.

WHY SCARCITY?
• Increasing population pressure.
• Large scale urbanization.
• Rising economic activities.
• Changing consumption patterns.
• Improving living standard.
• Expansion of irrigated agriculture.
• Changing cropping patterns.
• Large scale temporal and spatial variation.
• Free electricity.

LEADING TO:
• Crop failure
• Mass forced migration
• Closing down of health care industries and facility.
• Affect health of women and children.
NOTE: Most fundamental issue has been water mismanagement rather than scarcity. Awareness generation among communities and rain water harvesting can bail us out of this grim situation.

 AGRICULTURE AND WATER:

(Related Articles-Role of water resources management in economic development, Page No.-7 by Sacchidananda Mukherjee & Water Scarcity and public investment in irrigation, page no.- 30 by Seema Bathla)

Agriculture has to face multiple issues:
• Adoption of water intensive crops.
• Low efficiency in water use (Reckless use of pumps that leads to wastage)
• Declining water availability.
• Low investment in surface based irrigation.
• Increasing food demand due to population increase.
• Commitments under Right to Food Act.
• Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides.
• Elite capturing of canals.

Impact on farmers:
• Fall in agriculture productivity ? crop failure ? mass migration and suicides.
• Fall in agriculture income spreads to all sectors via forward and backward linkages. (drought if severe ?Inflation)
• Rising income disparity.
• Ultimately search for new livelihoods.

Solutions:
• Avoid water intensive crops.
• Adopting Micro Irrigation techniques.
• Land and water management practices. Like soil water conservation. Rain water harvesting etc.
• Laser leveling
• Rice intensification method.
• Conservation agriculture
• System of crop intensification

INDUSTRIES AND WATER:

(Related Articles-Role of water resources management in economic development, Page No.-7 by Sacchidananda Mukherjee & Creating water abundance through conservation and judicious use, page no. 13 by Indira Khurana)

Issues:
Manufacturing sector:

• Water intensive industries would suffer due to scarcity.
• Disposal of industrial effluents make water unsuitable.
• Industries view water as a cheap industrial resource.
• No regulation of waste disposal for small scale industries.

Services sector:
• Maximum impact on industries like hospitality, medical, real estate.
• Transfer cost to the society as they are not held accountable.

Solutions:
• Increasing water efficiency.
• Life cycle analysis.
• Supply chain management i.e. working with stakeholders.
• Water offset- initiating water reuse and recycle.
• See water as a scarce and valuable resource.
• Framing proper regulations for waste disposal and bringing small scale industries and services sector under it.

WATER SCARCITY: AFFECTING THE VULNERABLE

(Related Article- Water Scarcity: Affecting the vulnerable, page no. 67 by Vandana Shiva)


The virtually dry and dead water sources have led to acute water scarcity, affecting socio economic condition of the society. The drought conditions have pushed the villagers to cities in search of new livelihoods and the most affected is the vulnerable section (women and girls).

Mitigation of women water burden:
• Restore conventional methods of water conservation.
• Introduction of rainwater harvesting
• Change cropping patterns
• Focus should be on public-public partnership.
• Proper implementation and monitoring of government schemes
• Involve PRI’s and NGO’s in management of rural supply
• Community control of women over water so that they can manage water as a common resource for sustainability of eco system and society as a whole.

FLOOD MANAGEMENT:

(Related Articles-Role of water resources management in economic development, Page No.-7 by Sacchidananda Mukherjee & Flood management: need for storage dams, page no. 49 by M S Menon)

Floods is uneven distribution of water resource and variation of monsoon and along with it human intervention in upper catchment areas.

What has been done:
• National flood management program.
• Rastrhiya Barh Ayog (1976) was set up to review and evaluate flood protection measures.
• Flood planning zoning and management.
• Regional task force to suggest long term measure.
• National water policy 2012.

What more is required:
• Structural measures such as storage dams to absorb and regulate flood flow.
• Construction of embankments.
• Channel improvement and improving drainage conditions.
• Inter linking river project.
• Flood moderation.
• Link with water demands for irrigation, power and other uses during monsoon months.
• Coordination among various government agencies and cooperation between various governments.

 CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES:

(Related Articles- Climate Change and water resources, Page No.-55 by Sharad K Jain)

Causes:
• Take place due to forcing that may be external (earth orbit, tilt of rotational axis) or internal (volcanic eruptions).
• Greenhouse effect.
• Tectonic movements have direct connection with variation.

Impact of climate change on Indian water resources:
• Changes in temperature and precipitation are likely to influence the amount and distribution of run off in Indian rivers.
• Warmer climates will increase the melting of snow and ice.
• Glacial melt will increase.
• Affect demand for water.
• High floods can damage infrastructure.

Actions needed:
• Update basin wise water availability.
• Determine extent of current climate.
• Asses impact of climate change on surface and ground water
• Asses impact on rainfall.
• Develop adequate infrastructure.
• Review hydrological planning design and operating standards.
• Improve hydro metrological network for better monitoring.
• Asses impact of climate change on land use/land cover.
• Asses impact on magnitude-duration-frequency of drought.
• Develop databases and tool boxes and practice integrated water resource management.

REJUVENATING GANGA: PAST EFFORTS AND FUTURE PLANS:

(Related Article: Rejuvenating and cleaning Ganga: past efforts and future plans, page no. 41 by Bharat R Sharma)

 Issues affecting river:
a) Industrial dumping
b) Restricted flows
c) Human waste
d) Discarded offerings
e) Floods
f) Climate change

Water quality issue: Varies cross course of river
a) Gangotri to Rishiskesh: less polluted but many ill planned dams
b) Rishikesh to Kanpur: heavily abstracted and most polluted
c) To Sunderbans: Effected by Climate Change

Main Causes:
• Sewage and Municipal solid waste.
• Unused and abandoned religious offerings
• Industrial waste water
• Pollution from agriculture fields
• Insufficient environmental flows.

Government Efforts:
• Ganga Action Plan 1(1985): a failure
• Ganga action Plan 2 (1993): still in force in few states but did not yield accepted results
• Namami Ganga

Way forward:
• Reduce pollution load.
• Development of viable environment.
• Establishment of innovative Ganga Demonstration Centre or University
• Improve Governance, communication and implementation.

 Creation of Water Abundance:

(Creating water abundance through conservation and judicious use, page no.13, by Indira Khurana)

Efforts:Concerted + Consistent + Sustained 

• Awareness Generation
• Creating assets like water banks
• Reduce demand and use innovative technologies.

Immediate Steps:
• Formation of drought mitigation committees in the village.
• Collective oath should be taken for suicide prevention
• Arrangement of tanker water supply
• Arrangement of fodder and water for livestock.
• Implementation of the Right to Food Act
• Create water conservation structures
• Facilitate smooth and swift transfer of funds to villages
• Re-look into the ‘Easement Act’ that allows any land owner to extract ground water

Long term measures:
• Development of community water assets.
• Use traditional water harvesting techniques like Kuhl, Kare, Kohli etc.
• Appropriate agricultural practices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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