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Drainage Pattern in Peninsular India (Role of Geological Structure and Topography)

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What is Darinage pattern ?

The geometric patterns, fractals and chaos reflected by the arrangement of the master stream, its tributaries and sub-tributaries form drainage patterns. It is the spatial relationship of all streams with in a drainage basin. Different types of rainage patterns are shown in diagram below


various factors influencing drainage patters

Structure (Geology)
Present climate and palaeo- climates
Tectonic history
Human beings as a geomorphic agent and Anthropocence
Lithology or type of rocks Tropical, temperate or polar environments Changes in the general elevation of land and resultant eustatic changes Detention of water and sediments
Characteristics of rocks Internal(geothermal) and external(solar) Slope gradients and morphometry Interlinking of the drainage basins

Peninsular Plateau

  • Peninsular India is infact a detached part of the Gondwana block.
  • It is dominated by cretaceous basaltic formations with sporadic outcrops of archean, dharwar and cuddpah rocks.
  • The peninsular block has multiple traps or steps and is highly faulted.
  • It has lineaments, contorted lands, parallel joints and fracture zones.
  • The peninsular rivers run in mature valley and have attained nearly graded profiles.
  • TOPOGRAPHICALLY, The Western Ghats, Satpura, Mahadeo, Vindhyans and Aravallis constitute most of the NORTH SOUTH DIVIDE. It renders two domains for rivers to flow and discharge their waters: Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.

Geology and Topography

  • Heavily fractured and faulted terrain bears Rift Valley rivers and exhibits rectangular and trellised drainage patterns(Narmada and Tapi).
  • Low gradient basaltic terrain with northward dip exhibits less vibrant dendritic drainage patterns(Chambal, Son, Badua, Punpun and Phalgu)
  • North eastern plateaux (Chotta Nagpur, Hazaribagh and Ranchi) , Maikala system, Mysuru plateau and KathaiwarMandav represent radial centrifugal drainage patterns.
  • Western ghats and coastal plains produce parallel drainage patterns(kalu, kali, vailuma, sharavathi, netravathi, mandovi)
  • East flowing peninsular rivers develop dendritic drainage patterns(Godavari, krishna and cauvery).
  • Other than disappearing and centripetal radial drainage patterns, Peninsular rivers parades all the encyclopaedic forms of drainage patterns.


R P Singh By - R P Singh
Posted On - 12/13/2018 8:36:02 AM

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