WATER does not respect any boundary. Most of the larger rivers in India meander through the administrative boundaries of the Indian federal system. In India, there are plenty of conflicts between states on the usage of river water
Some of the major disputes are:
A. Krishna water dispute
Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT) is a tribunal set up by the government of India in 1969 under the Interstate River Water Disputes Act of 1956 to resolve the disputes between the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh over sharing of Krishna river water. The dispute was mainly about the inter-state utilization of untapped surplus water. The Krishna Tribunal reached its decision in 1973, and the award was published in 1976. The award contended based on 75% dependability that the total quantum of water available for distribution was 2060 TMC (thousand million cubic feet). According to this Andhra Pradesh got 800 TMC of water, Karnataka 700 TMC and Maharashtra 560 TMC.
In April 2004, the second KWDT, was constituted by the Government of India following requests by all three states. This tribunal has started its proceedings from 16.07.07.The allocation of available water was done according to 65% dependability, considering the records of flow of water for past 47 years. According to KWDT II, Andhra Pradesh got 1001 TMC of water, Karnataka 911 TMC and Maharashtra 666 TMC. Next review of water allocations will be after the year 2050.
B. Godavari Water Dispute:
The Godavari Tribunal commenced hearings in January 1974, after making its award for the Krishna case. It gave its final award in 1979, but meanwhile the states continued negotiations among themselves, and reached agreements on all disputed issues. Hence the Tribunal was merely required to endorse these agreements in its award.
C. The Cauvery dispute
The core of the Cauvery dispute relates to the re-sharing of waters that are already being fully utilized. Here the two parties to the dispute are Karnataka (old Mysore) and Tamil Nadu (the old Madras Presidency). The Cauvery Water Dispute tribunal was constituted on June 2, 1990 under the ISWD Act, 1956. The Tribunal reached the decision that Karnataka must release 205 TMC of water from the Cauvery reservoirs to Tamil Nadu on a monthly basis. Karnataka rejected the ruling of the Tribunal stating that the Tribunal issued a decision that was not implementable. The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal announced its final verdict on 5 February 2007. Tamil Nadu appears to have been accepting the verdict while the government of Karnataka, unhappy with the decision, filed a revision petition before the tribunal seeking a review. On the direction of supreme court, union government issued final award which makes an annual allocation of 419 tmcft to Tamil Nadu in the entire Cauvery basin, 270 tmcft to Karnataka, 30 tmcft to Kerala and 7 tmcft to Puducherry. This dispute refused to die between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Other water disputes in India:
- The Tungabhadra water dispute between Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
- Ravi - Beas Dispute between Punjab and Haryana
- The Aliyar and Bhivani river water dispute between Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- The Narmada water dispute between Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
- The Mahi river dispute between Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
- The Yamuna river water dispute between Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi.
- The Karmanasa river water dispute between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
- The Barak river water dispute between Assam and Manipur.